Hydrology and the Management of Watersheds, Fourth Edition

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Brooks Peter F. Ffolliott Joseph A. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payments has been arranged. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks.

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All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered.

It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Brooks, Peter F. Ffolliott, Joseph A. Brooks, et al. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN hardback 1.

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Watershed management. Ffolliott, Peter F. Magner, Joseph A. Hydrology and the management of watersheds.

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H93 —dc23 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. No warranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional services.

If professional assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The hydrological behavior of forest watersheds is quite different from that of agricultural or urban watersheds. Interception is significant, and evapotranspiration is a dominant component of the hydrologic cycle.

In forest watersheds, the ground is usually littered with leaves, stems, branches, wood, etc. Consequently, when it rains, the water is held by the trees and the ground cover and has greater opportunity to infiltrate. The subsurface flow becomes dominant and there are times when there is little to no surface runoff. There is greater recharge of groundwater. Because forests resist flow of water, the peak discharge is reduced, although inundation of the ground may be increased. This reduces flooding and flood damage downstream.

Due to reduced surface-potential, stream development is much less. Plants and trees provide good protective cover to soil from erosion. The landscape of these watersheds is predominantly mountainous. Because of higher altitudes, such watersheds receive considerable snowfall.

By and large, such watersheds have substantial vegetation, such that in some cases, these could be considered as forest watersheds also. Interception is significant.

Due to steep gradient and relatively less porous soil, infiltration is less and surface runoff is dominantly high for a given rainfall event. Flash floods are a common occurrence. The areas downstream of the mountains are vulnerable to flooding whenever there is a heavy rainfall in the mountains. Flooding in valleys downstream may be even more severe when there is rain in mountainous on the top of snow. There is little to virtually no change in land use.

Erosion is minimal if the mountainous are rocky.


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Sliding and collapsing of slopes are not uncommon occurrences during periods of heavy precipitation. Due to snow melt, water yield is significant even during spring and summer, which can be used for water supply.

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Recharge of groundwater is small and evapotranspiration is considerable. There is little to virtually no vegetation in desert, watersheds. The soil is mostly sandy and little annual rainfall occurs. Sand dunes and sand mounds are formed by blowing winds.

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Stream development is minimal. Whenever there is little rainfall, most of it is absorbed by the porous soil, some of it evaporates, and the remaining runs off only to be soaked in during its journey. There is limited opportunity for groundwater recharge due to limited rainfall. The watersheds in coastal areas may partly be urban and are in dynamic contact with the sea.

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Their hydrology is considerably influenced by backwater from wave and tidal action. Usually, these watersheds receive high rainfall, mostly of cyclonic type, do not have channel control in flow, and are vulnerable to severe local flooding. Coastal erosion is a continuing problem due to tidal action, and land-use change is common. The water table is high, and saltwater intrusion threatens the health of coastal aquifers, which usually are a source of water supply. The land gradient is small, drainage is slow, and the soil along the coast has a considerable sand component. Such lands are almost flat and are comprised of swamps, marshes, water courses, etc.

They have rich wildlife and plenty of vegetation. Evaporation is dominant, for water is no limiting factor to satisfy evaporative demand. Document also available in : Turkish. All language versions and volumes across World Bank Repositories.

The World Bank. Google Buzz Stumble Upon Delicious. This Page in:. Watershed management approaches, policies, and operations : lessons for scaling up English Abstract The report begins with definitions of watersheds and watershed management, a characterization of the problem of watershed degradation, and a short history of watershed management operations and policies Chapter 1.

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